Quotation: Use someone else's exact words in your own text
- Quote verbatim (word for word) by using quotation marks e.g. It has "always been a controversial issue" (Le Roux, 2015: 43).
- Quotations must not be too long, used only when appropriate and the source must be cited in the text and the source list.
Paraphrase: Rewrite an original passage in your own words
- Don't simply rearrange the sentence and cheat with cosmetic changes e.g. teenager instead of pubescent.
- Almost nothing of the original language must remain.
- Indicate how you relate to the original author's idea by choosing the appropriate verb e.g Meyer et al. (2015: 43) note, insist, indicate, believe, demonstrate, recommend, argue, claim, suspect, hypothesize...
- A summary is a highly condensed form of paraphrase by means of which the essence of for instance a chapter or book can be captured in a few words, sentences or paragraph(s).