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APA Referencing Guide

Based on the NWU Referencing Guide.

Journal articles

Journal articles

The title of the journal is written in full. Do not use journal abbreviations. The journal title is typed in italics in uppercase and lowercase letters. Also type the volume number in italics.

Use Arabic numerals for the volume and issue numbers of the journal. Volume and issue numbers must be indicated if available. Check for complete information in relevant databases.

APA Referencing - Journal articles

Online journal articles

Journal articles published online are assigned a DOI number (digital object identifier).

A DOI is a unique alphanumeric number assigned to online sources (not only journal articles) to identify it and provide persistent links to its location on the internet.

When a DOI is available for a source, include it in the entry of the reference list. The DOI can usually be found on the first page of the online journal article, or it can be found on the database where the journal is indexed.

Initially DOI numbers were given in a number format that started with doi:10.xxxx/xxxxxxxxxxxx. Since 2017 CrossRef (a registration agency) changed the format of the DOI to the form of a URL which resolves into a working link. Give the DOI in the format found on the source.

Note: no full stop after the DOI number.

If the journal article has an article number instead of a page range, include the article number instead of the page range.

APA Referencing - Online journal articles