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APA Referencing Guide

Based on the NWU Referencing Guide.

Theses and dissertations

Different countries use the terms dissertation and thesis differently. Use the term as it appears on the title page.

1. Unpublished dissertation or thesis

Saah, P. (2017). Exploring Mintzberg’s managerial roles of academic leaders at a selected higher education institution in South Africa. (Unpublished master’s dissertation). North-West University, Mafikeng Campus.

Text reference:
(Saah, 2017).

2. Thesis or dissertation from an institutional database

Norton, L. M. (2018). Building critical reflexivity through life story work (Doctoral thesis).

Text reference:
(Norton, 2018).

3. Thesis or dissertation from a commercial database e.g. ProQuest

Carroll, A. R. (2018). Ecosystems, communities, and species: Understanding mammalian response to ancient carbon cycle perturbations (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (ProQuest document ID 2058145688).

Text reference:
(Carroll, 2018).