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NWU Law House Style Referencing Guide

Based on the NWU Faculty of Law House Style.


Examples of references and additional information on references in footnotes and in the bibliography



(a) The general rule in referencing any type of sources is: (a) essential bibliographical information without which a specific source will not be found readily, must be cited in a consistent manner in footnotes and the bibliography; and (b) useful additional information such as publisher information must appear in brackets in the bibliography.

(b) This general rule only applies when neither this Standard nor OSCOLA provides for a rule.



(a) Authors’ initials are omitted in footnote references but must appear in the bibliography.

(b) When referring to a book, edited book, chapter in a book, thesis, dissertation or a paper in conference proceedings with a long title, the title may be abbreviated in the footnote but must appear in full in the bibliography.

(c) All sources under the heading "Literature" in the bibliography must be preceded by the abbreviated reference as per the footnote reference.

(d) A source’s title (for example titles of books, journal articles, reports) must always be referenced in the footnotes and bibliography in the language in which it has been published. For example in the bibliography: Wouters J Bronnen van Internationaal Recht (Intersentia Antwerp 2004). Any additional bibliographical information such as the place of publication must be provided in the bibliography in the language of the text of itself; in this instance, English.